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De uitvinder van de OV-chipkaart komt uit Hong Kong!

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Geplaatst op 25 december 2005 - 17:31

(Sinds september 1997) De uitvinder van de OV-chipkaart komt uit Hong Kong!

De OV-chipkaart vanuit Hong Kong heet "Octopus Card".

Octopus card
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Obverse side of a standard adult card.The Octopus card (八達通卡) is a rechargeable contactless stored value smart card used for electronic payment in online or offline systems in Hong Kong. Originally launched in September 1997 as a fare collection system for the city's mass transit systems, the Octopus card system has grown into a widely used electronic cash system used not only for virtually all public transport in Hong Kong, but also for making payment at convenience stores, supermarkets, fast-food restaurants, on-street parking meters, car parks and many other point-of-sale applications (eg. service stations and vending machines). In addition the system is used for access control to offices, schools and apartments. Using a card involves simply holding the card in close proximity above, or on, an Octopus reader, and cards can be recharged with cash at add-value machines or over the counter in shops (notably 7-Eleven), or directly through credit cards and bank accounts.

Octopus has become one of the world's most successful electronic cash systems, with over 12 million Octopus cards in circulation (nearly twice that of Hong Kong's population) and over eight million transactions per day, with nearly 300 service vendors (as of January 2005). The operator of the Octopus system, Octopus Cards Limited, a joint venture between MTR Corporation and other transport companies in Hong Kong, has won a number of contracts to extend Octopus-style systems to the Netherlands and Changsha.

Back-end technology and operations

The Octopus system was designed by AES ProData (Hong Kong) Limited, now known as ERG Transit Systems, a member of the ERG Group based in Perth, Western Australia. ERG was contracted for the initial design, building, of the back-end systems. Operations, maintenence and development is undertaken by Octopus, and in 2005, Octopus replaced the central transaction clearing house with its own system.

The Octopus card uses the Sony 13.56 MHz FeliCa radio frequency identification (RFID) chip (and other related technology); and Hong Kong is the home of the world's first major public transport system using this technology. This is a "touch and go" system, so users need only hold the card in close proximity of the reader, and thus physical contact is not required. Data is transmitted at up to 212 kbit/s (the maximum speed for Sony FeliCa chips), compared with 9.6 kbit/s for Mondex and Visa Cash.

Octopus uses a nonstandard system for RFID instead of the ISO 14443 standards, since there were no standards in the nascent industry during its development in 1997. The operating range of the reader/writer is between 30 and 100 mm depending on the type of model being used.


Main article: Octopus Cards Limited

As of 2005, Octopus Cards Limited (OCL), the operator of Octopus, is a joint-venture between six transit companies, namely MTR Corporation (57.4%), KCR (22.1%), Kowloon Motor Bus (12.4%), Citybus (5%), NWFB (3.05%) and First Ferry (0.05%). Since the Government of Hong Kong owns nearly three-quarters of MTR and 100% of KCR, it is the biggest effective shareholder in the company, although the business is operated on a commercial basis.

OCL has been aggressively expanding the use of Octopus in Hong Kong, and has won a number of contracts extending Octopus-style systems overseas, including the Netherlands and Changsha in Mainland China.

OCL also settles accounts between the Octopus system and the operators/merchants. Initially, OCL was restricted to having 15% of Octopus card transactions being non-transport, as it operated as an "exempt card" under Hong Kong's Banking Ordinance, but OCL was later granted a deposit-taking licence by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA), which allowed 50% of its transactions to be unrelated to transport. According to HKMA, HK$416 million (USD 53.3 million) is deposited in the Octopus system at any given time (as of 2000).


The MTR network adopted a system of recirculated magnetic plastic cards when it started operations in 1979. These cards were either used as single journey tickets or as stored value tickets. The KCRC adopted the same magnetic cards in 1984, and the stored value version was renamed Common Stored Value Tickets.

In 1989, the Common Stored Value Tickets system was extended to KMB buses providing a feeder service to MTR/KCR stations and to Citybus, and was also extended to a limited number of non-transport applications, such as payments at photobooths and for fast food vouchers.

MTR eventually decided to adopt more advanced technologies, and in 1993 announced that it would move towards using contactless smartcards. To gain wider acceptance, MTR and KCRC invited three other major franchised transport operators in Hong Kong, namely KMB, Citybus and the Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry to form a joint venture company in 1994, known as Creative Star Limited (renamed Octopus Cards Limited in January 2002). (The only major public transport operator at the time not to join was China Motor Bus, which pulled out of public transport altogether in 1998, in favour of its property development business, and had all of its bus routes transferred to NWFB).

The Octopus system was launched after three years of trials on September 1, 1997. Initially for use on services offered by the five joint venture partners, it was quickly extended to other transport services. In 2000, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority granted a deposit-taking company license to the operator, removing previous restrictions that prohibited Octopus from generating more than 15% of its turnover from non-transit related functions.

In January 2001, a new shareholders' agreement was signed and the shares of Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry in the operator was transferred to NWFB and New World First Ferry. In conjunction with the privatisation of its parent company, MTR Corporation, Octopus Cards Limited was also transformed from its previous non-profit making status to a profit making enterprise.

On June 29, 2003, the Octopus card found another application when the Hong Kong Government started to replace all its 18,000 parking meters with a new Octopus card operated system. The replacement was completed on November 21, 2004. A number of government facilities including public swimming pools and sports facilities also adopted the Octopus system at around the same time.

In November 2003, Octopus Cards Limited secured a HK$200 million (USD 25.64 million) contract to help provide contactless smartcard technology in The Netherlands' system, combining the fare collection system of all its public transport companies - starting with rail operator Nederlandse Spoorwegen, bus and tramway operator Connexxion, public transport companies of Rotterdam (RET) and Amsterdam (GVB) and the tram system in The Hague (HTM).

Geplaatste afbeelding


Het Nederlandse elektronische reis- en betaalsysteem is geïnspireerd door/ gebaseerd op het openbaar vervoersysteem in Hong Kong. Sinds de introductie in 1997 gebruiken passagiers voor het vervoer met bus, metro, trein en veerboot één enkele toegangskaart ('chipkaart'). Deze 3 minuten durende video geeft een indruk van de ervaringen van reizigers die gebruikmaken van elektronisch reizen en betalen in het openbaar vervoer.


De video: http://www.eastwestc...Hongkong-nl.wmv

Wanneer gebruikt er op het openbaar vervoersysteem in België?

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Geplaatst op 25 december 2005 - 17:54

Ehm...? Vroeg je net niet of je topic hierover weggehaald kan worden?
I never wanted to change the world, but the world changed me...

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